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History Of Rockets
Although the first successful flights of liquid-based rockets
did not happen until 1939, solid rockets had flown some 700 years
before any aircraft! In the 13th Century the Chinese shot off the
first recorded "fire arrows" and terrified invading
Mongols. By the time of the renaissance a century or so late,
Europe had learned the principle. They were mostly used for
military applications such as setting fire to ships. By the 18th
century, the British had employed rockets for the attack on Fort
McHenry near Baltimore in 1814, producing the "rockets red
glare" that was immortalized in the "Star-Spangled
Banner". The rockets of past centuries and those now
traveling in space are based on precisely the exact same
principle; the only difference is in the level of sophistication.
The most extraordinary rocket-story started in
two different countries separated by an ocean: Germany and the
United States of America. In Germany a brilliant scientist named Wernher
von Braun led the project that produced the world's first
liquid-fuel missile; the infamous V-2 rocket. This rocket
rain death on Great Britains big cities as it travel hundreds of
miles to deliver a 1000 LB high-explosive warhead in 1942. It was
the first time that ballistic missiles were used in war time.
This project was carried out with the cooperation of more than
10,000 engineer and scientists in Germany.
The German V-2 rocket.
On the western hemisphere a man driven by his childhood dream
of interplanetary flight, Dr. Robert Hutchings Goddard and a team
of no more than seven, had began there efforts to build a rocket
as early as 1916. Aided by a grant from the Smithsonian
Institution he began testing rockets. As early as 1939 he had
successfully tested several types of rockets. Goddard and a team
of no more than seven had successfully accomplished what a team
of 10,000 German scientist with a budget of millions accomplished
three years after him. But it was not until 1950 when Wernher von
Braun (the brilliant German rocket-scientist) was brought to the
United States after the war in order to review Dr. Goddard's
patented rocket that he exclaimed: "Indeed Goddard was ahead
of us ...".
In the following sections you will find more in-depth material on rocketry spanning almost 1000 years. The material comes from two sources, NASA's Lewis Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. The material from both sites complement each other and visiting both pages will give you a fuller view of the rich history of rocketry.
A Brief History of Rocketry
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Updated: March 12, 2004